Contemporary Theories of Motivation

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There are three types of needs:

  1. Need for achievement
  2. Need for power
  3. Need for affiliation

Qualities of/Motivation For High Achievers

Qualities of Good Managers

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

This theory proposes that rewards such as pay can decrease the overall level of motivation of a task. The reason for this may be that once the reward is introduced, a person might think they are doing the task for the reward rather than if they actually enjoy the task. This might lead to the conclusion that incentive based pay may actually decrease motivation.

Self Concordance Theory

This theory sees what percentage of someone's reason for pursuing a goal is because the goal is consistent with the person's interests and values. Research shows that people who follow goals that are consistent with interests and values are often happier with their jobs.

Goal Setting Theory

  1. Set specific goals rather than just say to do your best.
  2. Set difficult goals
    1. Energizes us to work harder
    2. Help us focus
    3. People persist and keep working towards difficult goals
  3. Give feedback
    1. Self generated feedback is more valuable
  4. Goals should be desirable to work towards
  5. The goal is committed to. This includes:
    1. belief that the goal can be achieved
    2. desire to achieve the goal
  6. Task characteristic. This theory works better for:
    1. simple tasks
    2. well learned tasks
    3. independent tasks
  7. The culture of the community should have the following characteristics
    1. Employees are independent
    2. Employees seek challenging goals
    3. Performance is considered important

Expectancy Theory

People are motivated to work hard when they are sure that their hard work will lead to good results. There are three considerations in this theory:

  1. Effort-performance relationship
  2. Performance-reward relationship
  3. Reward-personal goals relationship.